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BERKELEY h. e. van norman, vice-director an^ dean 

University Farm School 

June, 1918 




Uncontrolled fires in grain fields, grass ranges, and forests cause 
destruction annually of a large amount of foodstuffs, and of other 
resources vitally necessary to the successful prosecution of the war. 
The best figures obtainable indicate that this destruction in California 
reaches a total of $750,000 a year, the damage being about equally 
divided between the three resources above mentioned. The fifteen 
to twenty thousand acres of standing grain annually destroyed in 
the state would supply the cereal ration for nearly thirty thousand 
troops for a year. The thousands of acres of range and tons of hay 
which are annually lost by fire resulted last year in the starving of 
hundreds of cattle which we can ill afford to lose. The damage 
by forest and lumber-yard fires of approximately a quarter of a 
million dollars, makes more difficult the provision of aeroplane stock, 
ship timbers, and boxes for shipment of food supplies and ammu- 
nition. The 2000 to 2500 field and forest fires per year in California, 
most of which are the result of carelessness, must be extinguished at 
the cost of much time and labor. National-Forest records and esti- 
mates for the remaining portions of the state indicate that it took 
an equivalent of 800 men, working four months, to extinguish field 
and forest fires in California last year. This labor is much needed 
in shipbuilding, in agriculture, and in other productive work, but 
we shall continue to expend large amounts of it in fighting fires until 
such time as adequate organization and equipment for fire fighting 
are available in every county. 

Persons residing in outlying districts .have suffered great and 
unnecessary losses from fires started for the most part through care- 
lessness; and when such fires were started have had no means of 
procuring needed assistance. City residents have protection furnished 
by organized fire departments; the time has come when similar pro- 
tection should be accorded grain-fields, ranges, and brush and timbered 
areas, because in most instances these are subjected to a menace over 
which the property owners have little or no control. More people are 
using the fields and woods every year for hunting, camping, and 
similar recreation ; a condition much to be desired, but involving 
dangers from a fire-protection standpoint. Many of these people, 
who have not been educated to the fire risks involved, drop burning 
matches and tobacco along the highways and leave camp fires un- 
extinguished, thus confronting the individual property owner with 
problems that he cannot handle alone. 

The state law makes it a misdemeanor to leave unextinguished 
camp fires, but this will be ineffective until it is made the duty of 
someone in each county to enforce it. Also, when fires in remote places 
are not discovered until they have developed beyond ordinary means 
of control, someone should be charged with the duty of taking prompt 
action to suppress them before they become dangerous conflagrations. 
Arrangements should be made in advance for defraying charges for 
transportation, time of persons fighting fire and their subsistence, so 
that the man in charge will not be delayed by "red tape" at a time 
when minutes count. It has been demonstrated by federal and private 
cooperative agencies in many states that when an adequate fire 
detection and suppression system is put into effect, any area can be 
protected so that small fires rarely assume dangerous proportions. 

The Forest Industries Committee of California, under the chair- 
manship of the state forester, and including representatives of the 
United States Forest Service, the University of California and the 
lumber industry, is coordinating the efforts of all these organizations 
in promoting better fire protection throughout the rural and moun- 
tain communities of the state. In this work the Committee has 
endorsed the plan of county organization described below as the 
most feasible for dealing effectively with the fire situation. The plan 
in its essentials was worked out early in 1917 for the farm bureau of 
Merced County by Roy Headley of the United States Forest Service. 
As a farm-advisor project it proved to be so effective in 1917 in 
Merced and Solano counties that the annual convention of county 
farm bureaus of March, 1918, adopted it as one of seven war projects 
of major importance. The Committee has the hearty cooperation of 


the federal food administration, the Governor of the State, the State 
Council of Defense, the Fire Prevention Bureau of the Pacific, and 
the State Department of Education. 


Subsection 40, of Section 4041 of the Political Code of California, 
authorizes the board of supervisors of any county to appropriate an 
amount not to exceed two cents per hundred dollars on the total 
assessed valuation of the county for fire prevention and suppression. 
The money does not necessitate a special levy and can be expended in 
any way to secure the maximum of fire protection, depending on local 
conditions and needs. It may be used to purchase fire-fighting equip- 
ment, as in Solano and Napa counties, or to hire one or more fire 
wardens or rangers, as in Alameda County. 


Recommendations in detail as to the necessary protection pro- 
gramme for a given county can be made only after a study of resources 
involved, fire hazards, available protection forces, and other factors 
which enter into the fire problem of each community. This study can 
best be made by someone experienced in fire-fighting methods who is 
thoroughly acquainted with the territory in question and who can 
formulate a simple yet effective plan for rapid detection and sup- 
pression of any fires occurring within the county. In counties having 
a farm advisor, he is taking the initiative in formulating such a plan, 
often in cooperation with the fire chief of the county seat and with 
the support of the county council of defense. 

Although subject to modification to conform to local needs the 
following six points should be covered in an adequate fire protection 
plan for any county: 

1. A county fire warden. 

2. Local fire companies, each with competent officers and a district 

fire plan. 

3. Installation of adequate fire-fighting equipment. 

4. A comprehensive county fire ordinance. 

5. Publicity measures throughout the county and in each local 


6. Prompt reports on all fires. 


Whether elected by members of the local fire companies or regu- 
larly employed by the board of supervisors, there should be someone 
in general charge of safeguarding the resources of the county from 
damage by fire. He will usually be known as county fire warden, and 
will be deputized by, and work in cooperation with, the state forester 
in perfecting and bringing to a state of cooperative efficiency the 
equipment and efforts of all associations, companies, and individuals 
who are working for better fire protection within the county. As 
an instance of this, there may be several lumber companies, a railroad, 







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Fig. 1. — A county fire plan showing all important protection features in the 
county should be made by the county fire warden. 

a warehouse association, a county stockmen's association and many 
individual property owners, all interested in fire protection, but 
unable to coordinate their efforts in this direction except through the 
efforts of the county fire warden. 

The county fire warden will assist in the organization of local 
fire-fighting companies, recommend qualified men for appointment or 
election as officers in those companies, and instruct them in the 
execution of the duties they are to perform. He will recommend to 
the board of supervisors for purchase, and install at proper points in 
the various danger areas, adequate fire-fighting equipment which he 
shall inspect at frequent intervals to insure its being kept in condition 
for immediate and effective use. It will be his duty to inspect all 
property in the county in order to determine what fire hazards exist 

and to make such recommendations to the owners as may be necessary 
to eliminate the hazards. 

He will enforce the existing state laws and from time to time 
recommend, with the approval of property owners, such amendments 
to the county fire ordinance as may be necessary to minimize fire 
hazards or handle fire problems. In some instances this may mean 
a closed season against the burning of brush or setting of fire for 
any purpose without a permit from the fire warden. Under some 
conditions it may be necessary to compel property owners to plow 
strips as fire breaks around their grain fields, particularly where these 
are situated next to a highway, or compel installation of adequate 
safety devices on harvesting machinery. (See Stanislaus County 
ordinances in appendix.) In many instances the county fire warden 
should see to it that inflammable vegetation between roads and grain 
fields, or around warehouses, is cut and burned early in the season 
so that it may not later constitute a menace to the grain crop. 

The county fire warden should be provided with an automobile 
capable of taking a number of fire fighters, with equipment, water 
and provisions, to any fire which cannot be handled by the local fire 
company. In order to deal promptly with dangerous situations he 
should be authorized by the board of supervisors to expend in an 
emergency up to a stated sum of money for temporary labor, trans- 
portation, and provisions. 

The county fire warden should appoint one or two good men as 
assistant county fire wardens to aid him in times of great fire danger, 
or to take charge of the situation during his absence. These men, 
as well as himself, will be appointed state fire wardens by the state 
forester, which enables them to compel able-bodied citizens to fight 
fire in case of necessity. This necessity should rarely arise if the 
county is well organized, as the men of the local companies can be 
depended upon to do their' duty when the emergency comes. 


These should be organized in the several towns and rural com- 
munities, the ideal being to secure distribution in the county so 
that two or more such companies can be quickly sent to the assistance 
of any one organization that needs help in a dangerous situation. 
The organization is simple and can be perfected as part of the work 
of each farm bureau center. 

The local company should be made up of ten or more men who 
are competent and willing to fight fires, and who are known to be 
loyal American citizens. As soon as the personnel of the company 

is decided upon, officers will be chosen who will be known as the fire 
chief, or fire boss, and assistant fire chief or boss. These men will 
be in charge of all fires occurring within their district until the 
county fire warden or one of his assistants arrives on the scene. 
They will be appointed state fire wardens by the state forester upon 
recommendation of the county fire warden, and may also be deputized 
by the county sheriff if the police power going with this appointment 
seems desirable. 

Excellent results have been obtained in forming local companies 
in San Diego County through the use of the following cooperative fire 
suppression agreement : 

Cooperative Fire Suppression Agreement 

We, the undersigned members of the 

Farm Bureau and other landholders in the 

District, realizing the 

necessity of preventing the enormous annual destruction by fire of stock ranges, 
forests, food-stuffs, and forage, and the fact that during this period in particular 
it is the patriotic duty of every loyal American citizen to produce for our army 
and our allies every possible ounce of those commodities so vital to their success, 
do hereby agree: 

1. That we will, each and all, use every effort to prevent the outbreak of fires and 

urge our neighbors to do the same. 

2. That in case of necessary burning of brush piles in connection with clearing 

land, we agree to secure from an authorized state fire warden the usual 
form of burning permit, and discourage our neighbors from starting any 
fires without a permit. 

3. That, in case of fire, we will immediately answer any call for volunteers within 

this general vicinity, unless prevented by good and sufficient reasons. 

4. That we will place ourselves under the direction of 

Fire Agent or Fire Warden, during the 

progress of the fire. 

5. That we will do our utmost to suppress said fire at the earliest possible moment. 

6. That we will do all the aforesaid freely and without compensation unless our 

services are required for more than six hours, in which case, under the 
discretion of the County Fire Warden, claim for our services will be sub- 
mitted to the County Board of Supervisors, at the rate of 25 cents per 


With the help of his assistant and in cooperation with the county 
fire warden, the local fire chief will provide for storage at the most 
accessible point in the district of the fire-fighting trailer or other 
equipment that may be provided by the board of supervisors or by 
local subscription. 

He will instruct his men as to their duties when a fire occurs and 
will drill them in methods of using various types of equipment. 

He will designate someone to be local "dispatcher," whose duty 
it will be to take care of the lines of communication during a fire. 
The dispatcher, who may be the local postmaster or storekeeper, will 
be someone who is always available at the telephone in order to be 
notified immediately when a fire starts. When so notified the dis- 
patcher will immediately call the fire chief and thereafter stay at the 
telephone in order to transmit the latter 's orders to men who are 
needed at the fire. The dispatcher's telephone number should be 
widely advertised throughout the district by means of posters and 
newspaper notices so that the person discovering a fire will be able 
to report it with the least possible loss of time. 

r/ffE PLAN 
Fire trailer 

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Fig. 2. — The district fire plan kept hanging near the telephones of the chief, 
assistant chief and dispatcher gives all necessary information and hastens the 
operation of getting men and equipment to a fire. < 


The fire chief will make a detailed study of his district to deter- 
mine the areas of greatest hazard on the one hand and the available 
protection forces and equipment on the other. The latter data will 
be found to be most useful if entered on a map similar to figure 2, 
giving a tabulated list at one side of all persons who will respond when 
needed and the equipment they can be depended upon to bring. 
Copies of this plan should hang beside the telephones of the chief, 
assistant chief, and dispatcher, and one should be on file in the office 
of the county fire warden. It will increase speed and accuracy in 
giving directions during the excitement of a fire and should be 
revised from time to time. 


While engaged in the study of the district necessary to the framing 
of this plan, the fire chief should lose no opportunity to advise with 
property owners in the community as to the removal of all possible 
fire hazards on their premises. If this is done conscientiously by each 
fire chief, with the assistance of the county fire warden where neces- 
sary, the whole county will soon reach a condition of safety which 
would not otherwise be possible. Some people may resent such sug- 
gestions, but it is believed that these will be few in comparison to 
those who will enter wholeheartedly into this "safety first" movement. 
The safety measures adopted should be particularly thorough where 
large amounts of foodstuffs are at stake. It is better to err on the 
side of safety than to take chances, any time. 


Fig 3. — The two-wheeled trailer weighs 1200 pounds loaded. The .equipment 
it contains is worth its weight in gold when a bad fire threatens. At least $5000 
worth of grain was saved in one county last year through the efficiency of these 


In order to fight fires successfully adequate equipment must be 
ready and stored in such a way that it may be transported to a fire 
with the least possible delay. It is believed that a small two : wheeled 
auto trailer, which may be attached instantly to any automobile, best 
solves the transportation problem. It has the advantage of being 
light in weight, durable in construction, reasonable in price, and at 
the same time adequate in capacity to suit the needs of most local 
districts. Thirteen of these trailers, as described below, were installed 
last year in Solano County and are giving perfect satisfaction. 


(See figure 4) 

Outside Dimensions. — 36 X 72 inches. 

Bed. — 2 X 8-inch plank set on edge, forming twelve 7 X 7-inch compartments 
and five 14 X 14 inch compartments, requiring 50 lineal feet, surface on four 






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Solar- Cemitj 

Fig. 4. — Plan of the Solano County fire-fighting trailer. The small subdivisions 
are for 2 1 / 4-gallon fire extinguishers, while the large ones hold 10-gallon water 
cans, extra charges, wet sacks and tools. 

Bottom. — 1-inch boards, surfaced on two sides, securely nailed to the bed 
requiring 40 board feet. 

Spring Cleats. — Two pieces, 2X3 inch, running lengthwise at outside edge» 
underneath the floor, requiring 12 lineal feet, surfaced on four sides. One spring 
hanger is bolted to each of these pieces. 

Tongue. — Piece of 2 X 4-inch, nine to ten feet long, securely spiked through 
the flooring to the several divisions of the bed. Bolts are not required. 


The Hitch. — Made of two pieces of 1%-inch strap iron, bolted to the tongue, 
one rigid and one flexible to allow of adjustment K to any automobile (see sketch). 
One foot of light steel chain with snaffle attached is fastened into a hole left in 
the outer end of each of these arms. Both chain and arms can be wrapped with 
canvas or padded to prevent scratching of enamel on machine to which trailer 
is attached. Several good hitches on the market can be purchased at reasonable 
prices. It may be more convenient to use one of these on the trailer, in which 
case a special connecting bar must be attached to all automobiles which may have 
to pull the trailer. Whatever type of hitch is used, those responsible for getting 
the 'trailer to fires should practice until the attachment can be accomplished in 
the shortest possible time. 

Running gear and springs are standard light automobile equipment and can 
usually be secured second-hand at a reasonable figure. Steel instead of rubber 
tires will require less attention and give good service. Springs should be of 
one-ton capacity. 

After completion the whole should be given two coats of good mineral paint. 

The Solano County trailers cost between $45 and $50 each. Sev- 
eral types of one-ton commercial trailers are on the market, but 
these are higher in price and will probably not give any better service 
than the one here described. A reasonably satisfactory trailer can 
be made by using a light spring wagon with cut-under front wheels. 
The shafts or pole will have to be cut off in order to devise a satis- 
factory hitch, while the bed can be subdivided to hold the equipment. 
Unless of cut-under construction these four-wheeled trailers are apt 
to be overturned in rounding corners. 


Two and one-half gallon chemical fire extinguishers of the loose- 
stopple, acid-and-soda type, will just fit into the 7 X 7-inch compart- 
ments in the trailer bed. Ten of these, of a make approved by the 
Board of Fire Underwriters, should be carried in ten of the twelve 
compartments of this size, while extra charges of acid and soda will 
fit into the other two. The fire extinguishers are listed by the several 
makers at about $18, but this price is subject to discounts in dozen 
lots,* averaging 30 per cent f.o.b. San Francisco. Extra charges, 
consisting of one and one-half pounds of bi-carbonate of soda (baking 
soda) and four ounces of sulphuric acid will cost from thirty to fifty 
cents each, the best price being secured when the chemicals are bought 
in bulk. They can then be put up in packages for quick use in the 
field. It will be found most satisfactory to carry the acid in bottle 
of the same type as those in the extinguisher, so that no time need be 
lost in pouring acid from one bottle to another in recharging. 

* For list of approved fire extinguishers see Bulletin 295, California Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. 



The one and one-half pounds of baking- soda must be thoroughly 
dissolved in two and one-half gallons of water. Two or three buckets, 
each holding two and one-half or three gallons, are necessary for this 
purpose. Do not put the dry powder into the extinguisher and then 
pour in the water, as any undissolved particles of soda may clog the 
hose at a critical moment. When the soda solution is ready unscrew 
the top of the extinguisher, remove the empty acid bottle from the 
wire rack under the cap and pour the soda solution into the body 
of the extinguisher. A bucket with a funnel bottom will prevent 
spilling;. Remove the cork from a four-ounce bottle of acid, replacing 
the cork with the lead stopple. Put the acid bottle in the wire cage 
and replace the top of the extinguisher, screwing it down tightly. 

The only operation necessary to discharge the extinguisher is to 
turn it upside down, causing the acid to mix with the soda, the result- 
ing chemical action furnishing the pressure to expel the solution. 
Many extinguishers are damaged by men who in the excitement of a 
fire reverse them and drop them forcibly on the ground. This is not 
necessary as the lead stopple will fall out of itself when the extin- 
guisher is reversed. A single charge will last about one minute and 
throw a stream forty feet during that time. This is sufficient to wet 
down from two hundred to three hundred feet of fire in standing 
grain. Ordinarily about twenty-five extra charges should be car- 
ried on the trailer and a reserve supply should be available for the 
emergency of several fires occurring in quick succession. 


Water for charging extinguishers is most conveniently carried in 
ten-gallon milk cans which just fit in the 14 X 14-inch spaces in 
the trailer bed. Four of these cans will furnish water for sixteen 
recharges, making a total of twenty-six available charges when the 
trailer reaches a fire. It is presumed that before these are used up 
the fire chief will be able to have an extra supply of water on the 
ground. Some companies are using a forty-gallon barrel for carrying 
water. This is apt to tip over on rough ground, and in brush or on 
hillsides cannot be carrieel to the seat of the fire as is the case with 
the ten-gallon can. 

Fresh drinking water for the men is an absolutely essential part 
of fire-fighting equipment as fire fighters soon become exhausted if it 
is not available. The best way to carry drinking water is in a three- 


to five-gallon canvas water bag which kee,ps the contents cool by 
evaporation of water from the outer surface. Water bags should not 
t)e kept full of water, but filled with cool water just before the trailer 
goes to the fire. An extra supply of fresh water may be carried in 
one of the water cans and should not be used for recharging extin- 
guishers except as a last resort. 

Fig. 5. — The Lodi Fire Company and four-wheeled trailer. The U-hitch shown 
will fit over the axle of any automobile, being held in place by a bolt at the top. 
A short piece of chain and snaffle on each side prevent its slipping sideways. 
Parts are padded with rubber hose to prevent scratching the automobile. This 
hitch is rigid enough to pull well, and has enough flexibility to insure safety in 
turning corners. 


Box containing ten folded burlap sacks. Water should be poured 
into the box when the trailer leaves for a fire so that the sacks will 
be thoroughly moistened. They are very useful for beating out a fire 
which has been dampened with extinguishers. 

Six shovels and six ten-inch hoes are useful in fighting fire with 
earth or making fire lines where plows cannot be used. 

Six wire street-sweeping brooms make excellent tools for sweeping 
a fire out in short grain or grass. 

Five two and one-half gallon buckets, one of which has a wide- 
mouth funnel in the bottom, are necessary for carrying water and 
recharging the extinguishers. 


A four-pound axe, a heavy mattock and a pair of heavy wire 
cutters should be on every trailer. These are useful in getting through 
fences and demolishing other obstructions which may bar the way 
in getting the equipment to the fire. 

All of this equipment can be carried lengthwise of the trailer 
between the extinguishers and milk cans, or hung in racks at each 
side. A ladder for getting at fires in buildings can be carried on a 
four-wheeled trailer, but is too unwieldy for the smaller outfit. 

The trailer and outfit as described will cost between $200 and 
$225, distributed about as follows : 

Trailer, $50-$60. 

Extinguishers, $120-$125. 

Water cans and pails, $15-$20. 

Tools, $25-$30. 

If desired two man-pack water bags with double-acting siphon 
pump can be substituted for two of the fire extinguishers. These were 
developed by, and may be purchased from, the Western Forestry 
and Conservation Association, 525 Yeon Building, Portland, Oregon, 
and are particularly useful in fighting fire in brush or hilly ground. 
A water-proofed canvas bag, holding from seven to eight gallons of 
water, is fitted with shoulder straps so that it may be carried on the 
back. The siphon hand-pump draws water from the bag through a 
short piece of hose and throws it for a distance of forty feet. Com- 
bining more than double the capacity of the fire extinguisher with 
portability and cheapness, these should prove very effective fire- 
fighting tools. They cost about $8 each, and are enthusiastically 
endorsed by rangers of the Oregon Fire Association who used them 
last year. 

Another similar piece of equipment which will be most useful in 
the sections of mountainous counties where roads are bad is a horse 
or mule outfit consisting of two eight-gallon canvas pack-saddle bags 
with hose and force pump. This can be used anywhere a pack animal 
can go, and has given good satisfaction in fighting fires in the Rocky 
Mountains. These outfits are made by J. G. Read Bros. Company, 
Ogden, Utah, and cost about $35, not including the pack saddle. 

In those districts where the chief danger is from timber and brush 
fires the following standard equipment, such as is used t by the United 
States Forest Service, is recommended. This should be stored in a 
locked box located at a convenient crossroads or intersection of trails. 
If the box is painted orange and conspicuously labelled ' ' County Fire 
Fighting Tools" it will serve as a reminder of the need for care with 


Brush and Timber Fire Fighting Equipment 
10-15 Man Crew 

Tool Type Number 

Axes 314 -lb. I). B. falling 3 

Axes 3-lb. D. B. swamping 3 

Axes 21^-lb. with pole axe handle 6 

Mattocks 5-lb. 3% inches wide 6 

Hoes 7-in. oval eye planters' hoe 6 

Shovels... Long handle, round point 6 

Saw 5-ft. falling pattern 1 

Files 8-inch mill 6 

Water bags Canvas, 5-gallon 2 

Lantern Cold blast 2 


The board of supervisors of several counties have furthered fire 
protection within their counties by passing ordinances which enforce 
certain safety measures, prohibit certain acts during the dry season, 
and provide penalties for non-compliance with any of the provisions of 
the ordinance. Such an ordinance can be drawn up by the district 
attorney in cooperation with the county fire warden to fit local needs. 
(See Stanislaus County ordinance in appendix.) In brief some of 
the provisions of such an ordinance may be the following : 

1. Creating the office of county fire warden and defining the duties 
of that office. I ! i || 4'] 

2. Requiring the plowing of suitable fire-breaks around grain 
fields, and stacks of grain or hay in the field. 

3. Requiring the clearing of a fire-break around all warehouses, 
barns, buildings, and pumping plants within the county outside the 
limits of incorporated towns. 

4. Requiring the use of approved air clarifiers and spark arresters 
on all gasoline engines used in harvesting grain within the county. 

5. Requiring that all combined harvesters, or other outfits har- 
vesting grain, shall be equipped . at all times with at least two 
chemical fire extinguishers. 

6. Requiring the installation of adequate fire protective equipment 
in all warehouses used for the storage of grain or foodstuffs within 
the county. 

7. Prohibiting the burning of grass, brush or other inflammable 
material in the county during a specified danger season without a 
written permit from the county fire warden and then only under 
safeguards dictated by that official. 


8. Making it the duty of the county fire warden, or other official, 
to make inspections in connection with the above provisions and arrest 
violators for noncompliance. 

9. Providing for patrol of highways passing through areas of great 
fire hazard. In some cases county traffic officers could well perform 
this service in connection with their regular duties. 

10. Providing suitable penalties for noncompliance with any of 
the provisions of the ordinance. 

Such a county ordinance, if carefully drawn up and wisely 
enforced, will supplement the provisions of the state and federal fire 
laws and greatly aid in the prevention of all classes of fires within 
the county. It is hoped that every county in the state will shortly 
adopt an ordinance containing as many of the above provisions as 
are needful in dealing with the local situation. 


It is believed that the situation warrants publicity within the 
various counties in addition to that given by the United States Forest 
Service, and by the state forester. Signs similar to those shown in 
the illustration (fig. 6) can be successfully used to emphasize the 
provisions of the county fire ordinance, advertise in each district the 
names and telephone numbers of the local fire chief and dispatcher, 
and teach brief lessons of care with fire. The fact that the county 
board of supervisors does this will tend to emphasize these things 
both to local residents and to strangers who are apt to be careless. 


All grain and hay warehouses should be safeguarded by the in- 
stallation of adequate fire-fighting equipment. The Board of Fire 
Underwriters of the Pacific considers one two and one-half gallon 
chemical fire extinguisher for every 2500 square feet of floor space 
as furnishing a minimum of safety, and recommends in addition the 
installation of three two and one-half gallon fire pails per same unit 
of area. These must be kept filled and so located as to be instantly 
available. A barrel of at least twenty-four gallons capacity, kept 
filled with water, may be substituted for the chemical extinguisher. 
Where the warehouse is so situated as to be exposed to flying sparks 
from passing train or burning buildings, a ladder long enough to 
reach the peak of the roof should be kept hanging on pegs at the 
side of the building. This should be labelled, "For Fire Only," and 
never be used for any other purpose. 



It is essential that the local fire chief make a report to the county 
fire warden, following either of the forms given on page 20, as soon 
as possible after the fire is out. The latter will then file his report on 
the same fire with the state forester on cards which the latter pro- 
vides for this purpose. If no county fire warden has been elected, each 
fire warden will send a separate report on each fire to the state 
forester's office. This is necessary, not only that evidence may be 
collected where fires start under suspicious circumstances, but also 
in order that the efficiency attained by various organizations may be 
made known for the benefit of others. 


Use extreme care with fires! Clear away ground 
around Bret See that fire U out when leaving 

Do NOT burn .tubbU or bnuh during dry hum link** abwjluurjr imc*» 
If found Mcownry um otrom. c«r.t Whon wind U Mowing doubk 
»r. with fir* 

Grain men and range owner» are urged to keep eitm fire I 
on hand and bring um to fire, (or volunteers who are l» 

AUo carry extinguuher. on harvester, and tractor. 

Merced County Board ot Supervisors 

When arriving at a fire 

Follow his instruction*. 

district is 

Tire Boss" for duty 
"Fire Boss" for this 

Merced County Board of Supervisors 

Fig. 6. — County fire notices when well gotten up and properly distributed do 
not admit of doubt in anybody's mind as to the importance of fire protection. 
Their presence indicates to residents and strangers alike that the county is alive 
to its responsibilities in this matter. 



It is essential that the members of each community be on the look- 
out for suspicious characters who may be traitorously attempting to 
further the ends of the enemies of the country by destroying food and 
other war supplies by means of fire. One California county had 
fourteen fires of undoubted incendiary origin during one month 
last year which destroyed hay valued at $45,000. The labor situation 
in Washington last season brought the seriousness of this hazard to 
the attention of the public in the grain section which organized to 
combat this evil. Each district had a secret organization with a 
deputy in charge, and was in close cooperation with adjoining dis- 
tricts by telephone. Every stranger was closely watched and an 
explanation was demanded for any suspicious action. The "fire 
bugs" soon came to know that a misstep or misdemeanor brought swift 
and sure punishment. This resulted in a more favorable season in 
that section than in the preceding years. 

The federal food administration is directing the prosecution of all 
persons suspected of setting incendiary fires. This will be in the 
hands of federal prosecutors. The maximum penalty for conviction 
on such a charge is two years at hard labor in a federal prison and 
a fine of ten thousand dollars. 


Further information regarding fire protection is given in the 
following publications, which until the supply is exhausted can be 
obtained free of charge upon application to the organizations named. 

Fire Protection for Grain Fields. Bulletin 295, California Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Berkeley, Calif., April, 1918. 

Handbook of Forest Protection. California State Board of Forestry, Sacramento, 
Calif., April, 1918. 

The Western Fire Fighters' Manual. Western Forestry and Conservation Asso- 
ciation, Portland, Ore., April, 1918. 

Fire Prevention Day — A Lesson. California State Board of Forestry, Sacramento, 
Calif., April, 1918. 

Fire Prevention and the War. United States Forest Service for California, San 
Francisco, Calif., April, 1918. 







U.S. Forest 










Contra Costa 


Del Norte 


El Dorado 






















Los Angeles .. 





Mariposa .. 
Merced ... 



Monterey .. 



City of Arcadia. 

City of Pasadena. 

City of Sierra Madre. 

City of Azusa. 

City of Glendora. 

City of Monrovia. 

San Antonio Fruit Exchange. 

Eibio and Precipice Canyon Water Co. 

Banning "Water Company. 

San Gabriel Water Company. 

Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory. 

Pasadena and Mt. Wilson Road Toll Co. 

San Antonio Water Company. 

San Dimas Water Company. 

San Dimas Fruit Exchange. 

Glendora Mutual Water Company. 

Glendora Irrigating Company. 

Marin Municipal Water District. 

Monterey County Water Works. 






U.S. Forest 













Tri-County Eeforestation Commit! ( 
Serrano Water Association. 
J. T. Carpenter Water Company. 
Irvine Company. 

Tri-County Eeforestation Committee. 

Idylwild Mt. Park Company. 

Temescal Water Company. 

Lake Hemet Water Company. 

First National Bank, Hemet. 

Sacramento x 

San Benito 

San Bernardino x x Tri-County Eeforestation Committee. . 

San Diego x x 

San Francisco 

San Joaquin x 

San Luis Obispo ... . ... . City of San Luis Obispo. 

San Mateo 

Santa Barbara x City of Santa Barbara. 

Montecito Fire Protective Association. 

Santa Barbara Chamber of Commerce. 

Sisquoc Fire Protective Association. 

City of Santa Barbara Water Commission. 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz x 

Shasta x x 

Sierra x 

Siskiyou x 

Solano x 

Sonoma x 

Stanislaus x 

Sutter x 

Tehama X 

Trinity x 

Tulare x x 

Tuolumne X 

Ventura x x Santa Paula Water Company 

Yolo x 


In addition a large number of timber owners cooperate with the United States 
Forest Service on the basis of 1% cents per acre per year for the protection of 
lands lying in or near the national forests. County cattlemen 's associations 
recently organized at the request of the federal food administration are actively 
furthering fire protection within their counties. 



County Township 

Started in section Property of 

Date started Out 

Acres burned Value per acre 

Grain — Wheat, barley, oats, rye $ 

Forage — Grass, hay $ 

Timber $..._ 

Money damage Total Covered by insurance 

Improvements $ $ 

Grain $ $ 

Forage $..... $ 

Cause (in detail). If by tractor or thresher, what make and specific reason for 


If any reason to suspect incendiary, who is suspected and why? 

Witnesses (saw fire start) (first on scene) 



:.. Address . 

Address . 

Date of report Place 

Signature Title 



Rural Fire Company No 

County, California 

Location State 

Date 19 Time 

Building Field 

Kind of building Kind of field 

Damage to building Slight Partial Total 

Damage to field Slight Partial Total 

Extended to another building Beyond 

Extended to another field Beyond 

Owner of building Owner of field - 

Value of building, $ Value of field, $ 

Insurance on building, $ Insurance on field, $.... 

Loss on building, $....'. Loss on field, $ 


Occupant where fire started 

Kind of contents of building 

Value of contents, $ ; Insurance, $ ; Loss, $. 

Insurance agent or adjuster — (building) 

Insurance agent or adjuster — (field) 

Insurance agent or adjuster — (contents of building) 

Was origin of fire suspicious 

Cause of fire 

Officer in charge of fire 

Fire put out by residents 

By extinguisher Chemical lines 

Pails or hose Hydrant stream 

(Note. — Send promptly all information that can be obtained on this, the first 
day after the fire — further, or more accurate facts and figures later.) 

Date of report 19 

Date of report 19 

(Signed) , 

Fire Chief 
Fire Company 


An Ordinance Providing for Protection of Property Against Fire, for 
the Preservation of the Public Peace, Health and Safety Within 
the County of Stanislaus and Providing the Punishment for a Vio- 
lation of this Ordinance. 

The Board of Supervisors of the County of Stanislaus, State of California, do 
ordain as follows: 

Section 1. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district or associa- 
tion of persons whatsoever, being a possession of, or occupying, or having control 
of any land within the County of Stanislaus, outside of incorporated cities and 
towns, upon which there has been sown, or is standing, growing, or grown, any 
wheat, oats, barley, hay, or other vegetation of any kind whatsoever, which when 
so sown, standing, growing, grown, or being upon said land in any way has 
become inflammable and in such a condition as to be easily set on fire, at all times 
during the season when the said wheat, oats, barley, hay or other vegetation is 
inflammable and in such a condition as to be easily set on fire, shall maintain on 
every portion of the boundary of the said land where the said land adjoins other 
land upon which said other land there is standing, growing, or being any wheat, 
oats, barley, hay or other vegetation of any kind which is inflammable and in 
such a condition as to be easily burned, an effective fire protection or fire break, 
the said fire protection or fire break to be made by plowing along the said boundary 
a strip of the said land not less than three feet in width, or by the removal of all 
inflammable matter from a strip of the said land not less than six feet in width 
along the said boundary when the said fire protection or fire break is made in some 
other manner than by plowing; provided that when the said land adjoins a high- 


way the fire break may be made by removing all inflammable matter from the half 
of the highway next to the said land. 

Sec. 2. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district, or any asso- 
ciation of persons whatsoever, harvesting grain or causing grain to be harvested 
by means of a combined harvester, header or stationary threshing machine, or 
bailing hay by means of a hay press, shall keep at all times in convenient places 
upon each said combined harvester, header, or stationary threshing machine, or 
hay press, fully equipped and ready for immediate use, two suitable chemical fire 
extinguishers, each of a capacity of not less than two and one-half gallons. 

Sec. 3. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district, or any associa- 
tion of persons whatsoever, operating or causing to be operated any gas tractor 
or gas propelled harvesting machine in harvesting grain or hay in the County of 
Stanislaus shall maintain attached to the exhaust on said gas tractor or gas 
propelled harvesting machine an effective spark-arresting and burning carbon- 
arresting device. 

Sec. 4. No person shall operate or drive a motor vehicle of any kind other 
than gas tractors or gas propelled harvesting machines over or across any land 
upon which there is any inflammable vegetation of any kind unless the said motor 
vehicle is so constructed that the exhaust from the engine must pass from the 
engine into and through a muffler before being released to the air, and the said 
exhaust must be released to the air through the said muffler. 

Sec. 5. Every person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district or association 
of persons whatsoever being in possession or occupying or having control of any 
warehouse or building maintained for the storage of grain, hay or foodstuffs, or 
other property of any kind or character, for hire, outside of incorporated cities 
and towns, shall at all times maintain around the said warehouse or building an 
effective fire protection or fire break, the said fire protection or fire break to be 
made by removing all inflammable material from the ground around the said 
warehouse or building for a distance of not less than twenty feet from the exterior 
walls of the said warehouse or building; and, in addition to the said fire protection 
or fire break, the said persons shall maintain in each of the said warehouses or 
buildings one chemical fire extinguisher of a capacity of two and one-half gallons, 
for each two thousand five hundred square feet of floor space in the said ware- 
house or building; or a forty-two gallon barrel filled with water and three two and 
one-half gallon pails for each two thousand five hundred square feet of floor space 
in the said warehouse or building. 

Sec. 6. Any person, firm, corporation, co-partnership, district or association 
of persons violating any of the provisions of this ordinance shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and shall be punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for a 
period not exceeding seven months or a fine not exceeding six hundred dollars, or 
by both such fine and imprisonment. 

Sec. 7. All ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby 

Sec. 8. This ordinance is hereby declared to be an ordinance for the immediate 
preservation of the public peace, health and safety and is adopted for the purpose 
of preserving the grain and cereal food supply in the County of Stanislaus, and 
is passed by four-fifths vote of the Board of Supervisors of Stanislaus County. 

This ordinance shall take effect immediately and prior to the expiration of 
fifteen days after the passage thereof shall be published one week in the Modesto 


Evening News and in the Modesto Morning Herald, newspapers of general cir- 
culation published in the said County of Stanislaus. 

Passed and adopted at a regular session of the Board of Supervisors of Stanis- 
laus County on this 14th day of May, 1918. 

The Sutter County Fire Protection ordinance, in addition to the above, provides 
for adequate inspection in the following section : 

It shall be lawful for the Board of Supervisors to engage an inspector or 
inspectors, at a compensation to be fixed by said Board, whose duty it shall be 
to inspect all combined harvesters, tractors, warehouses, buildings, fields, and other 
premises and places. Said inspectors and every peace officer shall have the right 
to enter any field, warehouse, building, or other premises and places for the 
purpose of making inspection to see that the provisions of this ordinance are 
being carried into effect, and they shall have the power to summarily arrest any 
one violating the provisions of this ordinance ; and said inspectors shall have the 
right to condemn any carbon catching device, and make such recommendations 
to the parties in charge thereof as he may see fit. 



















Enological Investigations. 274. 
Humus in California Soils. 

The Loquat. 275: 
Utilization of the Nitrogen and Organic 

Matter in Septic and Imhoff Tank 276. 

Sludges. 277. 

Deterioration of Lumber. 278. 

Irrigation and Soil Conditions in the 279. 

Sierra Nevada Foothills, California. 280. 
The Citricola Scale. 

New Dosage Tables. 281. 
Melaxuma of the Walnut, "Juglans 

regia." 282. 
Citrus Diseases of Florida and Cuba 

Compared with Those of California. 283. 

Size Grades for Ripe Olives. 284. 

The Calibration of the Leakage Meter. 286. 

Cottony Rot of Lemons in California. 288. 
A Spotting of Citrus Fruits Due to the 

Action of Oil Liberated from the Rind. 290. 
Experiments with Stocks for Citrus. 
Growing and Grafting Olive Seedlings. 291. 
A Comparison of Annual Cropping, Bi- 
ennial Cropping, and Green Manures 292. 

on the Yield of Wheat. 

Feeding Dairy Calves in California. 293. 

Commercial Fertilizers. 294. 

Preliminary Report on Kearney Vine- 295. 

yard Experimental Drain. 296. 



Correspondence Courses in Agriculture. 162. 

Increasing the Duty of Water. 

Grafting Vinifera Vineyards. 164. 

Alfalfa Silage for Fattening Steers. 165. 

Spraying for the Grape Leaf Hopper. 

House Fumigation. 166. 

Insecticide Formulas. 167. 

The Control of Citrus Insects. 168. 

Snravine for Control of Walnut' Aphis. 

Countv Farm Adviser. 169. 

Official Tests of Dairy Cows. 170. 

Melilotus Indica. 

Wood Decay in Orchard Trees. 172. 

The Silo in California Agriculture. 174. 

The Generation of Hydrocyanic Acid 175. 
Gas in Fumigation by Portable Ma- 
chines. 176. 

The Practical Application of Improved 

Methods of Fermentation in Califor- 177. 

nia Wineries during 1913 and 1914. 179. 

Practical and Inexpensive Poultry Ap- 
pliances. / 181. 

Control of Grasshoppers in Imperial 

Vdley. 182. 

Oidium or Powderv Mildew of the Vine. 

Tomato Growing in California. 183. 

"Lungworms." 184. 

Feeding and Management of Hogs. 186. 

Some Observations on the Bulk Hand- 187. 

ling of Grain in California. 188. 

Announcement of the California State 189. 

Dairv Cow Competition, 1916-18. 191. 

Irrigation Practice in Growing Small 192. 

Fruits in California. 193. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. 196. 

How to Operate an Incubator. 197. 

Control of the Pear Scab. 

Home and Farm Canning. 198. 

Lettuce Growing in California. 200. 

Potatoes in California. 


The Common Honey Bee as an Agent 
in Prune Pollination. 

The Cultivation of Belladonna in Cali- 

The Pomegranate. 

Sudan Grass. 

Grain Sorghums. 

Irrigation of Rice in California. 

Irrigation of Alfalfa in the Sacramento 

Control of the Pocket Gophers in Cali- 

Trials with California Silage Crops for 
Dairy Cows. 

The Olive Insects of California. 

Irrigation of Alfalfa in Imperial Valley. 

Commercial Fertilizers. 

Potash from Tule and the Fertilizer 
Value of Certain Marsh Plants. 

The June Drop of Washington Navel 

The Common Honey Bee as an Agent 
in Prune Pollination. (2nd report.) 

Green Manure Crops in Southern Cali- 

Sweet Sorghums for Forage. 

Bean Culture in California. 

Fire Protection for Grain Fields. 

Topping and Pinching Vines. 

White Diarrhoea and Coccidiosis of 

Small FruiJ Culture in California. 
Fundamentals of Sugar Beets under 

California Conditions. 
The County Farm Bureau. 
Feeding Stuffs of Minor Importance. 
Spraying for the Control ef Wild Morn- 

ing-Glory within the Fog Belt. 
The 1918 Grain Crop. 
Fertilizing California Soils for the 

1918 Crop. 
Wheat Culture. 
Farm Drainage Methods. 
Progress Report on the Marketing and 

Distribution of Milk. 
Hog Cholera Prevention and the 

Serum Treatment. 
Grain Sorghums. 
Factors of Importance in Producing 

Milk of Low Bacterial Count. 
Control of the California Ground 

Extending the Area of Irrigated Wheat 

in California for 1918. 
Infectious Abortion in Cows. 
A Flock of Sheep on the Farm. 
Poultry on the Farm. 
Utilizing the Sorghums. 
Lambing Sheds. 
Winter Forage Crops. 
Pruning the Seedless Grapes. 
Cotton in the San Joaquin Valley. 
A Study of Farm Labor in California. 
Dairy Calves for Veal. 
Suggestions for Increasing Egg Pro- 
duction in a Time of High-Feed Prices. 
Syrup from Sweet Sorghum. 
Growing the Fall or Second Crop of 

Potatoes in California. 
Helpful Hints to Hog Raisers.